Mongolia Population

Mongolia Population

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Mongolia is 3,168,026, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 3,168,026
Population growth rate 0.99%
Birth rate 18.90 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall 68.95 years
Men 66.46 years
Women 71.56 years
Age structure
0-14 years 27.00%
15-64 years 68.59%
65 years and above 4.42%
Median age 27.50 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 1.00
Population density 2.03 residents per km²
Urbanization 56.70%
94% Mongols (88.5% Chalcha, 3.1% Dürbeten, 2.4% Bayats, 1.9% Buryats, 1.5% Dariganga and others), 4.8% Kazakhs; Minorities of Chinese and Russians
Tibetan Buddhists Lamaism 96%, followers of shamanism and Christians 4% Muslims (mainly in the southwest of the country), (2004)
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.735
HDI ranking 92th out of 194

People in Mongolia

Most of the Mongols belong to the Chalcha people. Then there are the Bourjats in the north, the Dariganga in the southeast and the oil solder in the northwest of the country. But then there are also Kazakhs, Toungus, Russians and Chinese. Mongolia is very sparsely populated. This means that very few people live in a large area. The fact that so few people live here is due to the country’s geography. It is very cold in Mongolia and the whole country is shaped by the steppe. Many people lead a life as nomads, they move through the country with their herds of cattle and look for good conditions for their animals. Then they move on again. So you never get settled. When the animals run out of food, they are forced to find a new, better place for the animals.

Mongolian life

To get from place to place, the Mongols use their horses. They drive goats, cattle or camels across the whole country on these, always looking for good pasture. But you don’t earn much money from it, which is why Mongolia is a very poor country. About a third of all Mongols live in great poverty. But people have one thing enough: time. Human life is largely determined by nature. And has been for centuries. Mongolian families move their yurts four to six times a year. Almost half of the people in Mongolia make a living from raising livestock.


Mongolia is a land of contrasts. While some are drawn to the big city in order to find better living conditions here, others remain clinging to their old traditions. Mongolia is developing into a modern state, young people want to live just like other young people in the world and show their children the way to modernity. You can find both forms of life in Mongolia if you would make the long journey.

Mongolia Overview

Mongolia, located in East Asia between China and Russia, is renowned for its vast steppes, rugged mountains, and nomadic culture. Its capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is a vibrant urban center where modernity meets tradition, with bustling markets, Buddhist temples, and traditional gers (yurts) dotting the landscape. Mongolia is famous for its rich history as the birthplace of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire, as well as its unique cultural heritage, including throat singing, traditional wrestling, and the annual Naadam festival. The country’s pristine natural landscapes, including the Gobi Desert and Khövsgöl Lake, offer opportunities for adventure and exploration amidst breathtaking scenery.

  • Capital City: Ulaanbaatar
  • Population: Approximately 3.3 million
  • Area: 1,564,110 square kilometers
  • Full Country Name: Mongolia
  • Currency: Mongolian Tugrik (MNT)
  • Language: Mongolian
  • ISO Country Codes: MN, MNG

Bordering Countries of Mongolia

Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia, surrounded by land on all sides. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east, and west. Mongolia has a total land area of 1,564,116 square kilometers (603,909 sq mi), making it the 19th largest country in the world.

To the north of Mongolia lies Russia, a vast and diverse country with an incredible range of landscapes from snow-capped mountains to sprawling steppes. Here visitors can explore cities such as Moscow or take part in thrilling outdoor activities such as skiing or snowmobiling.

To the east of Mongolia lies China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, a region known for its stunning grasslands and diverse wildlife. Here visitors can explore cities such as Hohhot or take part in exciting outdoor activities such as horseback riding or camping.

To the south of Mongolia lies China’s Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, another region known for its diverse cultures and breathtaking landscapes. Here visitors can explore cities such as Urumqi or take part in thrilling outdoor activities such as hiking or rock climbing.

Finally, to the west lies Kazakhstan, a country known for its stunning mountains and nomadic culture. Here visitors can explore bustling cities such as Almaty or take part in exciting outdoor activities such as rafting or mountain biking.

Mongolia borders four countries that offer something special for travelers looking to explore this part of Central Asia further than just Mongolia itself. From Russia’s vibrant cities or Kazakhstan’s stunning mountains – there are plenty of opportunities for exploration in these bordering countries. Whether it’s Inner Mongolia’s grasslands or Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region’s diverse cultures – there are plenty of ways to experience this part of Central Asia.


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