In order to begin to know the Meaning of the term bipartition, it is necessary to proceed to discover, first, its etymological origin. In this case, we can establish that it is a word derived from Latin, exactly from “bipartite”, which can be translated as the action of breaking into pieces. Likewise, it should be noted that it is the result of the sum of three differentiated components:
-The prefix “bi-”, which is equivalent to “two”.
-The verb “parti”, which is synonymous with “divide”.
-The suffix “-cion”, which is used to indicate “action and effect”.
It is about the segmentation of something into two fractions or portions.
The concept is often used in reference to an asexual reproduction mechanism that is also known as binary fission. Bipartition, in this sense, is developed by certain protozoa, yeast, algae and bacteria that duplicate their DNA and then divide the cytoplasm, resulting in two cells.
Most bacteria develop their reproduction through bipartition. For this reason, in certain contexts, they proliferate very quickly. In a few minutes, two bacteria can emerge and thus the population grows exponentially.
There are several types of bipartition. The regular bipartition implies the symmetric division of the cell, generating two daughter cells of identical size. The transverse bipartition, in turn, causes the cytoplasm to divide perpendicular to the axis of the spindle.
The longitudinal bipartition, as its name implies, develops longitudinally split shaft. There is also the oblique bipartition. Finally, the amoeba- like bipartition is perpendicular to the axis, but irregular to the cytoplasm.
In the same way, we cannot forget about what is known as multiple fission. This term includes the process that, as its name indicates, is not binary but multiple. Hence, the nucleus is not divided into two parts but into more and, consequently, the cytoplasm is also divided into more parts.
According to DigoPaul, the bipartition process, in all cases, begins with the replication of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In this framework, a bubble forms that allows the separation of DNA, and the new DNA is located at the poles of the plasma membrane. Then, with the chromosomes located at opposite poles of this membrane, cytokinesis (the physical division of the cytoplasm into a pair of daughter cells) takes place.
In addition to all the above, we cannot ignore the fact that it has been established with respect to DNA that exchange of the so-called genetic material can occur, leading to a mutation of that. In bacteria is where this situation can occur, which can be caused by three events:
-Absorption, when a cell integrates fragments of other cells that are dead into its DNA.
-The conjunction, which basically consists of the union of two bacteria.
-Transduction, when bacteriophages transport genes within the cell.