The adjective analogous, which derives from the Latin term analŏgus, is used to describe that which has an analogy with something else. The concept of analogy, on the other hand, refers to the link of similarity that exists between two different elements.
To establish an analog relationship, a comparison is necessary. When finding points in common, similarities or approximations, it can be affirmed that two objects or entities are analogous.
The search for universal characteristics and abstraction are some of the mental operations that are carried out when trying to establish whether different elements are analogous. A mechanic, for example, can claim that two cars are analogous when, after analyzing the engine, bodywork and components of each vehicle, he discovers certain similarities.
In the previous example, it can be seen that two objects are analogous if they can carry out similar functions; it is much more alike than mere coincidence in physical appearance, which, in fact, is not necessary for the analogy to be true. A synonym for this word that serves to highlight this explanation is equivalent: if two computers are analogous or equivalent, then it is expected that they can perform operations of equal complexity with the same efficiency.
The analogy usually appears in the field of psychology. When an individual is sought to learn something through experience, it is appealed that, by induction, she acts in the same way in those moments that are analogous. This is because, if a behavior is repeated in analogous situations, the result should be the same.
Within the field of linguistics, on the other hand, it is known by the name of analogy to the action necessary to create discourses according to certain pre-existing models. In this way it is possible to explain the changes that certain forms go through if they are exposed to the similarities that speakers notice in their minds. In this context we recognize two types of analogy: semantics and lexicon.
The phenomenon called semantic analogy is one that occurs when humans associate a term with an analogous meaning. A clear example can be found in the word miniature, which emerged within the scope of art to designate a very small painting, usually made on some delicate surface, such as vellum; Despite its first meaning, this same word is used to refer to any small object.
Our tendency to link each term to a particular sense, on the other hand, collaborates with the phenomenon known as lexical analogy, which can also be found as paronymic attraction, lexical analogy or paretimology. It is the action of creating a meaning by means of the phonetic adaptation of a term or by a semantic alteration. Let’s see some examples below:
* atiforrar, which arises from gorging, for thinking about the phonetics of covering;
* disinfestating, which arises from disinfecting, by thinking about the phonetics of infesting;
* erupt, which should be burping but arises from the contamination of the term eruption, which refers to a violent expulsion of gas or volcanic material;
* tape, which arises from tape, for thinking of rag phonetics.
The establishment of analogies is very important in law. The law allows judging similar cases through a comparison of the facts. If as a person responsible for a situation X a man was sentenced to five years in prison, when another subject performs a similar action, his act will be framed in the same legal framework by analogy.
For biology, finally, organs are analogous when they adopt a similar aspect for the development of a function, as in the case of birds with their wings.