Mongolia Faqs

Mongolia Faqs

Mongolia, a landlocked country in East Asia, is located between Russia to the north and China to the south. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east, and west. With an area of approximately 1.6 million square kilometers (603,000 square miles), Mongolia is the world’s 18th-largest country by land area. Its geographic coordinates are 46.8625° N latitude and 103.8467° E longitude.


Mongolia’s geography is characterized by vast expanses of open grasslands, rugged mountains, and deserts. The country has a diverse climate, with cold winters and hot summers. The Gobi Desert, one of the world’s largest deserts, occupies much of southern Mongolia, while the northern and western regions are dominated by the Altai, Khangai, and Khentii mountain ranges.

Mongolia is home to a wide variety of fauna, including the elusive snow leopard, wild horses known as takhi or Przewalski’s horses, and the Bactrian camel. The country’s longest river is the Orkhon River, which stretches for 1,124 kilometers (698 miles) through central Mongolia. The highest mountain in Mongolia is Khüiten Peak, located in the Altai Mountains, with an elevation of 4,374 meters (14,350 feet).



Mongolia has a rich archaeological heritage dating back to the Paleolithic era, with evidence of human habitation found in numerous cave sites across the country. The region was inhabited by nomadic tribes such as the Xiongnu and the Xianbei, who were known for their horseback riding and pastoral lifestyle.

Ancient Period

In the ancient period, Mongolia was home to a succession of nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu Empire, the Xianbei Confederation, and the Turkic Khaganate. These empires played a significant role in shaping the cultural and political landscape of Central Asia.

Mongol Empire

The most famous period in Mongolian history is the rise of the Mongol Empire under the leadership of Genghis Khan in the 13th century. At its height, the Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous empire in history, stretching from Eastern Europe to the Sea of Japan. The empire facilitated trade and cultural exchange across Eurasia, but it also brought devastation and destruction to many regions.

Qing Dynasty and Independence

In the 17th century, Mongolia came under the rule of the Qing Dynasty of China, which established the region as an autonomous territory known as Outer Mongolia. In 1911, Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty and became a theocratic monarchy under the leadership of the Bogd Khan.

Modern Era

In the 20th century, Mongolia underwent significant political and social changes, including the establishment of a socialist state under Soviet influence. Mongolia became a satellite state of the Soviet Union until the collapse of communism in 1990, after which it transitioned to a democratic system of government.


Mongolia has a population of approximately 3.3 million people, with a majority of the population residing in urban areas. The largest city and capital of Mongolia is Ulaanbaatar, which is home to over a million people. The population is predominantly ethnic Mongolian, with significant minorities of Kazakhs, Russians, and other ethnic groups. The official language is Mongolian, and the majority of the population follows Tibetan Buddhism.

Administrative Divisions

Mongolia is divided into 21 provinces (aimags) and one municipality (singular: hot), which is the capital city, Ulaanbaatar. Each province is further subdivided into districts (sums). The administrative divisions of Mongolia are:

  1. Arkhangai
  2. Bayan-Ölgii
  3. Bayankhongor
  4. Bulgan
  5. Darkhan-Uul
  6. Dornod
  7. Dornogovi
  8. Dundgovi
  9. Govi-Altai
  10. Govisümber
  11. Khentii
  12. Khovd
  13. Khövsgöl
  14. Ömnögovi
  15. Orkhon
  16. Övörkhangai
  17. Selenge
  18. Sükhbaatar
  19. Töv
  20. Uvs
  21. Zavkhan

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Ulaanbaatar
  2. Erdenet
  3. Darkhan
  4. Choibalsan
  5. Ölgii
  6. Khovd
  7. Ulaangom
  8. Sükhbaatar
  9. Altai
  10. Baruun-Urt

Education Systems

Education in Mongolia is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 16. The country has a comprehensive education system that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of education. Mongolia has several universities and colleges, including the National University of Mongolia and the Mongolian University of Science and Technology.



Mongolia has several domestic and international airports, including Chinggis Khaan International Airport in Ulaanbaatar, which serves as the country’s main gateway to the world.


The Trans-Mongolian Railway is the primary railway line that connects Mongolia to Russia and China, providing an essential link for trade and transportation.


Mongolia has an extensive network of highways and roads, although many are unpaved and rough terrain. The country’s major highways include the Ulaanbaatar–Darkhan Highway and the Altanbulag–Zamyn-Üüd Highway.


Mongolia is a landlocked country and does not have any major ports.

Country Facts

  • Population: 3.3 million
  • Capital: Ulaanbaatar
  • Language: Mongolian
  • Religion: Tibetan Buddhism
  • Race: Ethnic Mongolian (majority), Kazakh, Russian
  • Currency: Mongolian tögrög (MNT)
  • ISO Country Codes: MN, MNG
  • International Calling Code: +976
  • Top-Level Domain: .mn